The Benford Online Bibliography is an open-access non-commercial database of articles, books and other resources related to Benford's law, including theoretical, applied, and human-interest aspects of this rapidly evolving field.


This Bibliography is updated regularly. Entries originate by submissions from users (see below under Submissions), by standard search tools such as Google Scholar and the Science Citation Index, and by incorporation of other Benford bibliographic compilations including previous ones by Nelson Beebe, Werner Hürlimann, and Mark Nigrini. It does not include every known reference to Benford's law, but only those deemed useful or interesting for a broad community of users.

The entries can be displayed in multiple ways and are extensively searchable via the "Search" link in the top navigation bar.

Please send comments and/or questions to: staff AT


We encourage authors, students and other interested researchers to contribute to this free collection. To submit an entry for consideration for inclusion in the Bibliography, please use the "Submit a Reference" link above, and provide as much information as possible, including name, email address and affiliation. If your submission does not include a link to the full pdf of the paper, please send a private copy to: staff AT This will expedite the review process.


To cite this Bibliography, please use the following:

Benford Online Bibliography, A. Berger, T. P. Hill, and E. Rogers,, 2009. (Last accessed *current date*.)


In May 2015, Princeton University Press will release the Berger-Hill book An Introduction to Benford's Law.
For more information, please click here or here.

Arno Berger
Dept. of Mathematical & Statistical Sciences
University of Alberta
Ted Hill
School of Mathematics
Georgia Institute of Technology
Erika Rogers
staff AT