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Wase, V (2020)

Benford’s law in the Beale ciphers


ISSN/ISBN: Not available at this time. DOI: 10.1080/01611194.2020.1821409

Abstract: The Beale Papers is an 1885 pamphlet in which there are three ciphers, said to contain the location of a hidden treasure. In this paper the ciphers are viewed through Benford’s Law. Statistical analysis show that the the ciphers deviate from the law—cipher 2 less so than 1 & 3. Furthermore the numbers in the uncracked ciphers do not come from the same distribution as the cracked one, but it seems that the uncracked ciphers might share a similar random distribution. One possible explanation is that cipher 1 & 3 are faked in a similar manner, another is that they might share the same key.

@article{, author = {Viktor Wase }, title = {Benford’s law in the Beale ciphers}, journal = {Cryptologia}, volume = {0}, number = {0}, pages = {1--5}, year = {2020}, publisher = {Taylor & Francis}, doi = {10.1080/01611194.2020.1821409}, url = {}, }

Reference Type: Journal Article

Subject Area(s): General Interest