### Perez-Gonzalez, F, Heileman, GL and Abdallah, CT (2007)

#### Benford's Law in Image Processing

Image Processing, pp I-405 - I-408. ICIP 2007. IEEE International Conference.

**ISSN/ISBN:** 1522-4880
**DOI:** 10.1109/ICIP.2007.4378977

**Abstract:** We present a generalization of Benford's law for the first significant digit. This generalization is based on keeping two terms of the Fourier expansion of the probability density function of the data in the modular logarithmic domain. We prove that images in the discrete cosine transform domain closely follow this generalization. We use this property to propose an application in image steganalysis, namely, detecting that a given image carries a hidden message.

**Bibtex:**

```
@inproceedings{
TITLE = {Benford's Law in Image Processing},
AUTHOR = {P{\'e}rez-Gonz{\'a}lez, F. and Heileman, G.L. and Abdallah, C.T.},
BOOKTITLE = {Image Processing, 2007. ICIP 2007. IEEE International Conference on},
VOLUME = {1},
PAGES = {I-405--I-408},
YEAR = {2007},
ORGANIZATION = {IEEE},
ISSN = {1522-4880},
DOI = {10.1109/ICIP.2007.4378977},
}
```

**Reference Type:** Conference Paper

**Subject Area(s):** Image Processing