### Pain, J-C (2013)

#### Regularities and symmetries in atomic structure and spectra

High Energy Density Physics, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 392–401.

**ISSN/ISBN:** Not available at this time.
**DOI:** 10.1016/j.hedp.2013.04.007

**Abstract:** The use of statistical methods for the description of complex quantum systems was primarily motivated by the failure of a line-by-line interpretation of atomic spectra. Such methods reveal regularities and trends in the distributions of levels and lines. In the past, much attention was paid to the distribution of energy levels (Wigner surmise, random-matrix model…). However, information about the distribution of the lines (energy and strength) is lacking. Thirty years ago, Learner found empirically an unexpected law: the logarithm of the number of lines whose intensities lie between 2kI0 and 2k+1I0, I0 being a reference intensity and k an integer, is a decreasing linear function of k. In the present work, the fractal nature of such an intriguing regularity is outlined and a calculation of its fractal dimension is proposed. Other peculiarities are also presented, such as the fact that the distribution of line strengths follows Benford's law of anomalous numbers, the existence of additional selection rules (PH coupling), the symmetry with respect to a quarter of the subshell in the spin-adapted space (LL coupling) and the odd–even staggering in the distribution of quantum numbers, pointed out by Bauche and Cossé.

**Bibtex:**

```
@article{Pain2013392,
title = "Regularities and symmetries in atomic structure and spectra ",
journal = "High Energy Density Physics ",
volume = "9",
number = "3",
pages = "392 - 401",
year = "2013",
note = "",
issn = "1574-1818",
doi = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hedp.2013.04.007",
url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1574181813000475",
author = "Jean-Christophe Pain",
}
```

**Reference Type:** Journal Article

**Subject Area(s):** Natural Sciences